Training evaluation is necessary and, in many ways, critical to the success of a business. But because short term priorities always seem to take precedence, it is typically something we plan to do better in the next course, or maybe next month, or even next year. After all, we've managed pretty well up to now, so surely another year can't hurt! Even if training evaluation is undertaken, it is usually at the easiest and lowest level: the measurement of student reactions through simple surveys or happy sheets. Reactions to a learning event are important and the happy sheets do serve a purpose, but will they really provide enough hard data for informed decision making when greater investment in training is needed, budgets are cut, competition for resources is fierce, and times get tough?